Von Adolf Schneider, INET
Hallo, Water Cracking Researchers
According to Andreas Hecht from email@example.com you should have a look to "Experiment zur Hochfrequenz-Analyse von Wasser"
There you will find informations on a practical experiment concerning "high-frequency-analysis of water" (not so high, only some 900 Hz).
Concerning the calculations at the end of this article "Experiment ..." there are some doubts from my part. According to the annex in this email you will get an
energy density of the hydrogen produced from 1 litre water which equals 1/30 of the energy density of gasoline (not 0.7). So after the 360 minutes running of the system you will get -
with a production rate of 1 litre H2O splitting per minute - a total of 360 litre splitted H2O which equals 360/30 = 12 litre gasoline. Compared with a standard car which consumes 10
litre/100 km you could bridge a distance of 120 km (not the 2'500 km mentioned in the article) with 300 litre water. If you compare the total energy of 12 litre gasoline - which is 528
megajoule or 146 kWh - with the expended electrical energy of 4.8 V * 5 Ah= 24 Wh - you have an unexpected high O/U ratio. This seems to be a mystery.
Anyway - the O/U-effect of water splitting is not so a strange phenomenon if you are aware that even in standard DC current electrolysis there exist a small window to get
more energy out compared to the "invested" electrical energy if you choose the right parameters to stimulate such an "endogenous" process - that means a water
splitting process with additonal energy flowing in from the ambient temperature field. Stefan Hartman mentioned the following literature where you can find the "right"
parameters for such a process:
From "FUEL FROM WATER, Energy Independence with Hydrogen" Author Michael A.Peavey Publisher Merit, Inc., P.O. Box 694 Louisville,
KY 40205 Library of Congress
Number 88-188956 ISBN 0-945516-04-5, page 22: " The smallest amount of energy needed to electrolyse one mole of water is 65.3 Wh at 25 degrees Celcius (77 degress F). When the
Hydrogen and Oxygen are recombined into water during combustion 79.3 Wh of energy is released. 14 Wh more energy is released in burning Hydrogen and Oxygen than is required to split
water. This excess must be absorbed from the surrounding media(environment) in the form of heat during electolysis."
And then, "At 25 degrees celcius, for voltages of 1.23 to 1.47 V, the electrolysis reaction ABSORBS HEAT. At over 1.47 V at 25 degrees celcius, the reaction gives off
For german reading people we recommend the book of Bockris/Justi "Wasserstoff - Energie für alle Zeiten" (Priemer 1980), p. 242 f. "Thermodynamik der
Wasserzersetzung". There are also references to the "endotherm" window with additonal energy flowing in from the surrounding heat.
Another reference is given in th US-patent No. 4,394,230, July 19, 1983, from inventor Henry K. Puharich. See:
Puharich mentioned a statement S.S. Penner and L. Iverman, taken from the book "Energy", Vol. II, Non-Nuclear Energy Technologies, Addison-Wesley Publ. Company,
Inc. Rev,. Edition, 1977. p. 140 ff:
"It should be possible to improve the efficiency achieved in practical electrolysis to about 100% because, under optimal operative
conditions, the theoretically-attainable energy conversion by electrolysis is about 120% of the electrical energy input." ... "When H2 (gas) and O (gas) are generated by
electrolysis, the electrolysis cell must absorb heat from the surroundings, in order to remain at constant temperature. It is this ability to produce gaseous electrolysis that is
ultimately responsible for energy-conversion efficiencies during electrolysis greater than unity."
Puharich has realized that the water molecule can be energized by electrical means so as to shift the bond from the 104 deg. configuration to the 109 deg. 28 sec.
tetrahedral geometrical configuration. An electrical function generator is used to produce complex electrical wave form frequencies which are applied to, and match the complex resonant
frequencies of the tetrahedral geometrical form of water. Puharich has found a resonant frequency of 600 Hz (+/- 5 Hz) when he used 4 Volt rms and 25 mA (100 mW) or 2.6 V and 38 mA (98.8
Additional informations concerning "water splitting" via pulsed input energy can be found under:
While Puharich radiated water with 600Hz (the optimal frequency depends on the power levels with load) - Keely used 510 Hz, 620 Hz and 12'000 Hz.
Remark: The higher resonance frequency of 923 Hz used in the reference http://buerger.metropolis.de/drax22/
could be caused by the addition of 0.1 parts sulfurized acid to the water (in order to encance the conductance)
Further references are:
Deutsche Offenlegungsschrift 2416993, 9.10.75, Karl Heinz Hartkorn
Gleichstrom-Elektrolyse mit überlagertem Wechselfeld, 300 V, HF, 10-höhere Ausbaute im Vergleich zur Normalelektrolyse (10 times higher efficiency compared to standard
Deutsche Offenlegungsschrift 4'025'803 A1, Joachim Scheuermann (15.8.1990).
Wassermoleküle werden zum Schwingen angeregt durch Bestrahlung mit der Eigenfrequenz des Wassers. US 5,257,598, Fred Mehr
Verfahren für Fuel and Water Vaporizer
More informations about "Water-motor" is published in NET-Journal Vol. 4, No.4/5, 1999, pp. 24-28 (in german).
Eagle-Research has launched a free NEWSLETTER covering subjects like 'running vehicles on water'. They have recently published a book 'Water as Fuel, Book 1'.
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engines. They are doing their best to publish information that has been kept SECRET, in some cases for over 100 years. As you can imagine, anyone who has been making money selling
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Energy density of hydrogen compared with gasoline, see:
http://www.unifr.ch/spc/UF/92novembre/schlapbach.html (in german)
Der (untere) Heizwert von Wasserstoff beträgt 120 kJ/g, derjenige von Benzin nur 44.5 kJ/g. (Factor: 2.7:1)
.... Liquid hydrogen is light, but due to its low energy density occupies three times as much volume as gasoline...
Calculation of energy density ratio between hydrogen and gasoline (see also http://www.f23.parsimony.net/forum46848/messages/75.htm Molare mass of H2O equals 18 g/mol (18 = 2 + 16) - therefore 1 litre H2O equals 55 mol. 55 mol gasous H2O occupy a volume of 1233 litre (22.4145 litre/mol) Only 2 mol of the 18 mol are H2 or 1/9 of 55 mol = 6.11 mol or 137 litre. Conclusion: From 1 litre H2O you will get 137 litre hydrogen (besides the oxygen)
Energy density of hydrogen is: 10.8 megajoule/m3 or 1.4796 megajoule per 137 litre (produced from 1 litre H2O) Energy density of gasoline is: 44 megajoule/litre. Ratio
between energy density of gasoline and hydrogen (produced from 1 litre H2O) is: 44/1.4796 = 29.7
Comparison of reference http://buerger.metropolis.de/drax22/ with Daniel Dingles car:
"Buerger" needs theoretically (see my calculations on top of the email) 300 litre water to bridge 100 km (compared with a 10 l gasoline/100 km)
Dingle needs 4 litre water for a distance of 500 km or 0.8 litre water to bridge 100 km
"Buerger" needs 4.8 V * 0.3 A = 1.44 Watt and in order to split the 300 litre water a total electrical energy of 6 h * 1.44 Watt = 8.64 Watthours
Dingle needs 12 V * 3 A = 36 Watt and with 200 km/h to bridge the 100 km in 0.5 hours he needs a total electrical energy of 18 Watthours
So evidently the expended electrical energies are comparable. But - assuming that a big part of the produced energy is transfered from the environment via an engogenous
process - it is not understandable why Dingle needs only so small quantities of water. Even if his machine uses the fuel in a more efficient way he should have a higher water consumption
- if his machine uses hydrogen as fuel in a traditional way. It seems that some kind of additional energy is coming in which we do not understand